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Medical weight loss center new london ct

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Modeling social norms and social influence in obesity

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One study finds a significant adjustment of energy intake to reach that socially sanctioned average BMI Medical weight loss center new london ct, by categorizing individuals based on their weight groups, the inertial effect of norms are captured in that individuals are naturally staying in their current weight group, unless a separate mechanism changes their weight status.

System dynamics modeling process may La buena dieta be used to provide a more nuanced understanding of the mechanisms through which norms are generated and modified Group Medical weight loss center new london ct building processes 9798 identify what social influences different stakeholders in a community perceive and how those influences shape their reactions.

Such studies draw heavily on participatory group model building sessions and other qualitative tools and the resulting qualitative models can inform more nuanced quantitative models with a richer appreciation of social determinants of health 99 For example, as part of Envision, Hovmand and Brennan have focused on modeling the social determinants of childhood obesity in a low-income urban neighborhood.

The approach used group model building methods to involve community members including children, youth and young adults, parents, service providers, and clergy in the process of developing a causal map of the influences and consequences of childhood obesity in the community.

Understanding the causal mechanisms leading the formation of norms and the consequence of norms at the neighborhood level provides both a better picture of their endogenous influence on obesity trends as well as how to measure them in ways that are most salient to community members.

The structure of SD models is built based on qualitative and process data e. However the application of these approaches to obesity research is at early stages and many opportunities exist for incorporating norms into SD models of obesity that are grounded in empirical data and useful for policy analysis.

Additionally, SD models could be combined and compared with ABMs in this domain to benefit from the Medical weight loss center new london ct actor network data while keeping the broad model boundary typical to SD models Anecdotal evidence suggests researchers and policy makers are divided regarding the utility of mathematical and simulation models in developing health-related policy and programs.

On one hand, there has been strong support and many examples of useful mathematical models, especially in the areas of infectious disease and tobacco control.

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On the other hand, evidence-based medicine and evidence-based policy generally demand empirical, not simulated, findings, with randomized intervention trials considered the best evidence for program and Medical weight loss center new london ct development. Mathematical modeling offers many promises, but also faces many challenges as the analysis process often involves making assumptions and subjective decisions especially when addressing complex public health problems and when data are limited or impossible to collect.

However, these factors are in fact among the key reasons why mathematical and simulation modeling is needed. For example, models lay bare assumptions often implicit in other analytical techniques, allowing them to be examined and even tested directly.

Similarly, models can help guide future empirical efforts iteratively, by focusing attention on those conceptual variables that matter most, and sometimes even by identifying new ones.

Furthermore, some societal problems are not well served by traditional, quantitative research methods, leading to debate about the methods considered critical for the collection of relevant evidence.

Many authors have noted that complex systems solutions are needed to address problems like obesity and related chronic disease - Complexity extends to the policy process, which is rarely linear, operates under limited information, and presents temporal challenges including simultaneity of events and heterogeneity of lag times; all of this makes policy evaluation particularly difficult Stakeholder support has grown for rigorous complex systems thinking regarding health problems, paralleling Medical weight loss center new london ct in other fields to address the problems of industry engineering, war, disaster response Examples with a specific health focus include applications to smoking and infectious disease outbreaks.

SimSmoke is a simulation model that assesses the impact of past tobacco control policies and generates predictions about the future effect of policies on smoking prevalence and premature mortality attributable to smoking Soon after influenza emerged in North America inthe World Health Medical weight loss center new london ct WHO convened an informal mathematical modeling network of health experts and modeling groups, which made recommendations to limit the spread Medical weight loss center new london ct the H1N1 virus Finally, the NCCOR Envision project which the coauthors are all members of is applying the methods discussed in this paper to identifying key policy levers for reducing childhood obesity The diverse modeling approaches described above can be applied for both discovery and policy analysis in the context of social influence in obesity.

The discovery goal can be pursued in the form of both statistical identification of causal mechanisms, and the generation of diverse insights and hypotheses. The network analysis methods allow for teasing out different social influence mechanisms regulating energy intake, physical activity, and other obesity-relevant traits, especially if network data is available over time.

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Other mechanistic models can also be used for estimating the strength of networks of causal pathways. However, pursuing the statistical identification goal often requires time series data at the right level of granularity and utilization of advanced statistical and estimation methods.

Social epidemiologists should make additional use of Medical weight loss center new london ct models in obesity research in general and in analyzing social influence hypothesis in particular. The findings from previous type of research, combined with traditional statistical estimates can inform the development of realistic agent-based models representing complex interactions among actors. System Dynamics models can also use this data in aggregate and combine it with broad model boundary and feedbacks crossing diverse domains to represent core mechanisms operating on obesity.

Both these types of models are suited for the second type of discovery: generating hypotheses on complex interactions that can explain observed regularities, illustrating core dynamics and uncertainties, guiding data collection, and communicating complex insights with different audiences.

A major value of such models is their ability to integrate within a single tool both complex social influence pathways and other types of obesity drivers, from economic factors to the built environment. Such Medical weight loss center new london ct is crucial for theoretical understanding if the obesity trend is not the result of any single causal mechanism, but the emergent outcome of complex interactions. The resulting systemic perspective is also indispensable for policy analysis.

The broad boundary of these models allow for tracking outcomes of interventions that are distant in time or space: from policies that target individuals or small groups e. While increasingly there are examples of mechanistic models applied to well-specified policy problems in the obesity domain, there is much Medical weight loss center new london ct for models that leverage our enhancing understanding of social influence to design innovative new obesity interventions and assess the existing ones in vitro.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Curr Epidemiol Rep. Author manuscript; available Medical weight loss center new london ct PMC Mar 1. David A. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Keywords: Social influence, norms, social network analysis, obesity, system dynamics modeling, agent-based modeling, social epidemiology, health policy. Table 1 Taxonomy of social influence.

Open in a separate window. Social network models We imagine that many types of norms arise from the local social environment, especially social networks. Agent-based models ABM Agent-based modeling ABM is a relatively new type of computational simulation model with wide applicability to social dynamics. System dynamic SD models System dynamic SD models typically divide the Dietas rapidas into different groups based on their adoption of a practice, a physical feature e.

Intervention and policy relevance of models Anecdotal evidence suggests researchers and policy makers are divided regarding the utility of mathematical and Medical weight loss center new london ct models in developing health-related policy and programs.

Medical weight loss center new london ct

Conclusions The diverse modeling approaches described above can be applied for both discovery and policy analysis in the context of social influence in obesity.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent This article does not Medical weight loss center new london ct any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors. Wang Y, Beydoun MA. Epidemiol Rev. Wang Y, Lobstein T. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity.

Medical weight loss center new london ct

Look into our Norwin Strollers program and get active today! You can learn more about the results of the study and participate in the study by clicking the link above. Check out our Healthy Communities Institute Westmoreland County Data to learn more about the demographics of the area and track the progress we have been making! Cohosh Negro Címicifuga. Physician Recruitment Make a Donation. Lights of Love.

Latrobe Area Hospital Charitable Foundation. Wellness Centers. Resources Patients and Visitors: Contact Us. Visiting Hours. Excela Medical weight loss center new london ct Locations. Refer Yourself Referral. EHMG Referral. Dosis Cuestiones de Seguridad Referencias. La cimicifuga es una La buena dieta alta perenne originalmente encontrada en el noroeste de los Estados Unidos.

Los nativos americanos la usaban principalmente para los problemas de salud de las mujeres, pero también como un tratamiento para la artritis, fatiga y mordedura de serpiente. Pinkham's Vegetable Compound para calambres menstruales. El uso principal de la cimicifuga hoy en día es para el tratamiento de las mujeres en la menopausia. Una evidencia sugiere que la cimicifuga puede reducir los bochornos y la resequedad vaginal y posiblemente proteger a los huesos de la osteoporosis.

En el Medical weight loss center new london ct, se pensaba que la cimicifuga era un fitoestrógeno, una substancia basada en una planta que tiene acciones similares al estrógeno.

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Sin embargo, como se describe abajo, la evidencia creciente indica que la cimicifuga no tiene acciones generales parecidas al estrógeno. En vez de eso, ésta puede actuar como el estrógeno sólo en ciertos lugares: El cerebro reduciendo los bochornos Medical weight loss center new london ct, los huesos potencialmente combatiendo la osteoporosis y la vagina reduciendo la resequedad vaginal.

Finalmente, la cimicifuga algunas veces es recomendada como una clase hierba general para la mujeres, se ha dicho es efectiva para una variedad de asuntos menstruales, Medical weight loss center new london ct como la dismenorreaPMS y la menstruación irregular.

Sin embargo, todavía no existe evidencia significante de que ésta sea efectiva para estos padecimientos. Síntomas de la Menopausia y la Osteoporosis. La evidencia preliminar sugiere que la cimicifuga puede tener los mismos beneficios del estrógeno, sin los riesgos.

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Sin embargo, la evidencia que sustenta estos usos Medical weight loss center new london ct todavía es débil. En un estudio doble ciego controlado por placebo62 mujeres con menopausia recibieron cimicifuga, estrógeno o placebo por 3 meses. Sin embargo, la cimicifuga tuvo un efecto parecido al estrógeno en las células de vagina. Esto también es positivo, debido a que esto significa que la cimicifuga reduce el adelgazamiento vaginal.

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Finalmente, el estudio encontró indicios de que la cimicifuga puede ayudar a proteger los huesos. Un estudio previo también encontró beneficios con la cimicifuga, pero es difícil confiar en los resultados. Este ensayo dio seguimiento a 80 mujeres por 12 semanas y comparó los efectos de la cimicifuga, el estrógeno y el placebo.

Sin embargo, en este estudio el estrógeno comprobó ser menos efectivo que el placebo. Este resultado es tan difícil de creer que arroja serias dudas sobre el sentido de los resultados. Aunque las mujeres reportaron mejorías en los síntomas, no hay manera de saber si la cimicifuga fue la responsable.

Alguna información interesante se ha desarrollado en relación a cómo funciona la cimicifuga. En el pasado, la hierba fue descrita como un fitoestrógeno, un químico basado en una planta con efectos parecidos al estrógeno.

Sin embargo, la evidencia posterior indica que la cimicifuga no es un fitoestrógeno general, pero puede actuar como un estrógeno en sólo pocas partes del cuerpo: El cerebro reduciendo los bochornos y los huesos potencialmente ayuda a prevenir o tratar la osteoporosis y posiblemente, la vagina.

Si esta teoría es cierta, la cimicifuga es un modulador selectivo de los receptores de estrógeno SERM por sus Medical weight loss center new london ct en inglés un tanto como el medicamento raloxifen Evista. In these meetups I will share everything I've learned in the last year, point you to good resources, and steer you away from distractions.

There's a lot of noise and half-truths. Some of them are actually true but don't apply to metabolically deranged people like us. That said, there is always new information coming Medical weight loss center new london ct, and we all need a place to discuss it. Hope to see you there! Carl Franklin. Gather together in community for food, fun, Medical weight loss center new london ct support this Valentine's weekend!

Bring a Keto low-carb dish to share with serving utensils, and drinks Medical weight loss center new london ct your choice.

We will provide cups, napkins, plates, and utensils, but you should bring your own containers if you want to take home leftovers. Set them out where people can pick them up. Carl will not be with us as he is traveling, but we are truly looking forward to seeing everyone!!

Dinner at 5pm. Join My List. Job Openings. Iniciar sesión. Ahora no. La juventud estudiantil, que sabe cerrados los caminos del porvenir, le apuesta a cualquier cosa, menos al continuismo cobarde. Los empresarios lo perdieron todo hace rato. No tienen cuentas para hacer. Y los paniaguados del sistema Adelgazar 30 kilos con horror que el sistema ya no tiene mercados para comprar sus conciencias.

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He leído en este diario, hace algunos días, una entrevista a Francesca Gargallo, del movimiento feminista, y querría hacer algunos comentarios. La imputación que hace al capitalismo pone de manifiesto la matriz ideológica de su pensamiento. Es falso que el capitalismo sea el " nicho ideal " de lo que llama " sexismo ", entendido como la falta de respeto a los derechos de la mujer.

Al amparo de ese capitalismo las mujeres fueron recuperando los derechos que antes no les eran reconocidos. La expresión feminazisin duda agresiva, es la respuesta a heteropatriarcadotan agresiva como aquella, acuñada por ese movimiento.

Y tiene que ver con su promoción del aborto, es decir, el supuesto derecho que reclaman a quitar la vida de un ser humano inocente e indefenso, lo que recuerda a los nazis. Y con comportamientos tales como quemar iglesias o cortar calles, atropellando los derechos ajenos. Declarar la guerra de los sexos en los países en donde no existen distinciones ni discriminaciones de esa naturaleza es una actitud de ese sexismo cuya desaparición dicen buscar. Dietas rapidas: Dieta cetogenica pode comer tomate.

Louis, St. We show that social norms are key to understanding the obesity epidemic, and that social influence mechanisms provide a necessary linkage between individual obesity-related behaviors and population-level characteristics. Because influence Dietas faciles cannot be directly observed, we show how three complex systems tools may be used to gain insights into observed epidemiologic patterns: social network analysis, agent-based modeling, and systems dynamics modeling.

However, simulation and mathematical modeling approaches raise questions regarding acceptance of findings, especially among policy makers. A growing number of studies have found that body image is related to health behaviors including eating and dieting, particular among young people in the United States 346and thus affects obesity.

A full understanding of the Medical weight loss center new london ct epidemic is therefore likely to include social norms along with two related mechanisms: feedback between population-level characteristics and individual behavior, and the role of social networks Adelgazar 10 kilos defining who is influencing whom.

For example, a well-known study by Christakis and Https:// posits that social contacts of individuals directly or indirectly influence obesity-related behaviors, and that social networks structure therefore shapes who becomes obese 7.

One source of confusion over the value or plausibility of the social influence hypothesis in the public health community is that models are often equated with correlational models, such as the one proposed by Christakis and Fowler. Epidemiologists and others have described the need for a priori specification of a causal mechanism Medical weight loss center new london ct order to provide causal inference from such Medical weight loss center new london ct 89yet mechanisms may be unknown, disputed, or untested.

However, correlational modeling is only one approach. Suplemento quemar grasa y ganar musculo types of models are possible, including informal mental models, maps representing a territory, and mechanistic models of behavioral and physical phenomena 10such as the mathematical models of classical mechanics.

Expanding the range of models epidemiologists utilize in research and policy analysis enables us to address more diverse problems and gain different types of insights. The need for a fuller range of models is especially pertinent to social epidemiology, as much of the field addresses issues Medical weight loss center new london ct arise with social systems, including social influence. Particularly pressing are problems of endogeneity and feedback which render statistical identification of causes difficult or impossible.

We expand on prior work summarizing the use of systems science tools in public health, including a recent article by Luke and Stamatakis 13by focusing on the issues of influence and norms. Many types of social influences are theoretically possible, including mechanisms that do not involve norms such as market forces, advertising, neighborhood crime, and social capital.

Natural experiments and randomized trials further suggest that social influence may be either permissive encouraging behavior or proscriptive limiting behaviordepending on the dis similarity of those interacting. These mechanisms may suggest very different policies and interventions, including inoculation, induction, rewiring networks, identifying opinion leaders as champions, and de-normalizing of socially acceptable but unhealthy behavior In this paper, we highlight how employing a broader range of models may help us understand the processes by which norm formation and change occur in a more direct way, helping researchers adjudicate some of these debates about what statistical signatures norms do or do not have.

To that end, we will provide examples of approaches used by several Medical weight loss center new london ct who are members of the Medical weight loss center new london ct Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research NCCOR Envision network, including statistical, social network, agent-based, and system dynamics That is, do social norms exist as variables within individuals, as an emergent property of systems of individuals, or do they have an independent existence from Medical weight loss center new london ct as part of the environment individuals observe and act within?

The confusion arises in part because data about norms is collected from individuals while the focus of study is usually effects at the aggregate level.

Deeper insights Medical weight loss center new london ct dynamics that span both individual and collective levels may require new approaches that focus on mechanisms. As the psychologist and philosopher of social science Paul Meehl noted, the problem here is not one of better statistical methods, but developing better theory specification through more explicit models In Adelgazar 50 kilos paper, we recognize this by emphasizing the use of models to specify and test different formulations of the social influence hypothesis according to the type of influence or mechanisms.

To support this, we provide the following taxonomy of influences in the form of logically plausible mechanisms see Table 1.

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The paper focuses on social influence as a mechanism shaping behavior. We do not claim our provisional list of mechanisms in Table 1 is exhaustive; as noted above, many types of influence are possible. Nevertheless, the Medical weight loss center new london ct encompasses a wide range of mechanisms operating at multiple levels, and will serve to illustrate how these might be modeled.

Social influence requires that there be at least two units interacting with one another.

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Eight of these techniques employ what might be Medical weight loss center new london ct social influence mechanisms: providing information on approval by others; providing encouragement; modeling or demonstrating a behavior; providing feedback on performance; using follow-up prompts; providing Medical weight loss center new london ct for social comparison; planning social support or change; and prompting identification as a role model.

Many of these techniques are either explicitly drawn from, or can be tied to, well-established behavioral theories: theory of reasoned action 19 ; theory of planned behavior 20 ; information-motivation-behavioral skills 21 ; social cognitive theory 22 ; theory of social Medical weight loss center new london ct 23 ; social support theory 24 ; and control theory These behavior change techniques are largely drawn from the clinical psychology and health behavior within the context of dyadic therapist-patient interactions.

While therapeutic relationships may serve as a model of one type of social interaction, social influence clearly extends beyond dyadic interactions to relationships between individuals and larger social and Dietas faciles systems.

Kelman proposed a framework of influence at operating at multiple levels, with three processes compliance, identification, and internalization linking individual behavior to norms outside the individual, shaped by the structure of social interaction We therefore turn to social networks as a means of understanding this structure.

We imagine that many types Medical weight loss center new london ct norms arise from the local social environment, especially social networks. In turn, norms help shape and re-enforce social networks.

In what follows, we focus on actor-by-actor 1-mode networks. Networks are typically represented as graphs. Actors in a network are referred to as nodesand relationships including interactions between nodes are represented as edges 27 If the network is egocentricall real-world information about the network is collected from, and revolves around, the ego; an example is the General Social Survey GSS If alters are also egos, then the network is sociometric; the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Add Health is a well known example Specification of interaction without a network structure is also possible, and in many situations is plausible The lowest level of interaction is the dyad, comprise of only two agents.

Kelman's work discussed above examined influence within therapist-patient dyads Some intriguing experimental studies of dyadic interaction offer further insights into rules for people's behavior. McFerran found that eating behaviors were modified according to an alter's apparent body size Thus, influence may vary in a manner analogous to infectivity factors in infectious disease Focusing on dyads alone is only appropriate for models where exogenous ties outside the dyad can be ignored; researchers are advised to address this question before conducting analyses solely at the dyadic level, since this implies the absence of a larger network The next level of interaction is the triadcomprised of three agents.

While there are 16 possible triad configurations 36the most important for studying norms and influence are fully and mutually connected triads where all 3 nodes share ties with the other Adelgazar 20 kilos nodes. Based on theories of social capital 1639Simmelian ties 40 and structural Medical weight loss center new london ct 41complete triads that persist over time would exhibit especially strong normative influences else they would fall apart.

The relationship of norms to cohesion is central to Coleman's work on social capital, providing an explanation for the function of norms in maintaining social cohesion through sanctions of norm-violation 16 ; relevant sanctioning for obesity might include table manners or shaming.

However, we know of no attempts to explicitly modeling the role of social triads or cliques in norms or obesity-related behaviors; given that clique membership is tied to non smoking behavior 4243this is likely a rich area of research.

Medical weight loss center new london ct

Norms and influence also operate Medical weight loss center new london ct higher levels, where diffusion processes operate, and location center, periphery within the network may be important for adoption of new behaviors Individuals occupying central positions in networks tend to behave in a manner following larger group norms 45 Because they are subject to fewer influencers and are less invested in maintaining the status quoindividuals at the periphery may be easier to influence, yet have less influence on the system as a whole Tools for identification of network position include blockmodeling 47 and centrality formulae Nonetheless, structural positions of nodes may obscure other explanations of position e.

Ties tend to be non-random, and exponential random graph model ERGM models can capture departures from randomness as well as dependency of ties dyadsusing the R packages ergm 48 and pnet Authors who have employed these techniques to study obesity include de la Haye 5152Valente 53Shoham 54and Simkins In spite of the Dietas rapidas interest in social network models to understand obesity, many challenges remain.

The Add Health study 30 remains the gold standard for its nearly complete social network data, measured over multiple waves over time. However, the adolescent data were collected in the s and do not capture the current prevalence of adolescent obesity in the US; the adolescent data further lack detailed information on physical activity and Medical weight loss center new london ct behavior.

Additional longitudinal datasets, with detailed information on obesity-related behaviors, are necessary.

Medical weight loss center new london ct

The role of OSM in shaping norms around obesity-related behaviors is unknown, although some preliminary work on tobacco and alcohol use has been done by Moreno 57 and Valente Finally, if networks are important for structuring norms and influencing behavior, they should also be useful in designing behavioral interventions Given that interventions are expensive and some network-based approaches might fail to have Adelgazar 20 kilos effect, simulations are crucial tools in deciding which approaches have promise.

Simulation models of whole networks have also been created, including Bahr 59El-Sayed 60and Shoham under review. We now turn to one approach to simulation, agent-based models. Agent-based modeling ABM is a relatively new type of computational simulation model with wide applicability to social dynamics.

Agents are generally given a set of adaptive rules for interaction with their environment and with other agents. In this way, dynamic mechanisms that link individual decision-making or behavior to social or population-level outcomes can be effectively studied.

Several features make ABM a potentially powerful approach for the study of Dietas rapidas norms and social influence in obesity. First, because each actor is individually represented and modeled in an ABM, the approach permits consideration of substantial diversity among agents—in demography, social exposure, biology, psychology, etc.

For the study of obesity characterized in many populations by distributions with substantial skew and varianceand for the study of social influence where pronounced heterogeneity by social context, age, or psychology may be importantthese can be important considerations.

Second, the agent-based approach allows great flexibility in cognitive assumptions about individual decision-making and information Medical weight loss center new london ct.

To translate individual state and external information into Medical weight loss center new london ct behavior, an individual agent may follow simple heuristic rules, complex cognitive or statistical processing models, or even representations of multiple conscious and unconscious brain processes.

Agents may also differ from one another in the form of decision-making used, and can adapt not only their behavior but even their rule set through time for example, by learning. The processes that underlie body weight change and obesity are known to involve multiple brain systems, heterogeneity in decision-making, and several forms of dynamic adaptation 65 - A third potential advantage of the ABM methodology for the study of social influence lies in its ability to effectively incorporate social and physical space.

ABMs provide extensive capability to directly include rich and explicit representations of the context which governs agent interaction and exposure— including geographic Medical weight loss center new london ct 69 - 71Medical weight loss center new london ct or partial social network structures 72and neighborhood effects Since the specific form and structure of social networks and geography often determine by whom an individual may be influenced socially, this is a potentially important advantage for modeling social Perdida de primer mes manga effectively.

Finally, ABM provides a powerful platform for the study of co-evolving individual behavior and social context, with dynamic feedback in both directions. ABM includes both a direct representation of the individual level and the ability to capture dynamic changes in population-level or neighborhood-level outcomes. This enables the approach to capture multiple pathways of feedback between micro-behavior and macro-outcomes.

For example, agents can be influenced by extant social norms, by observing distribution across their peers of key characteristics, by direct social contagion, by messaging, or even by the presence or absence Medical weight loss center new london ct others. At the same time, the model can capture Medical weight loss center new london ct these environmental contexts change through time as a direct result of the behavior of individual actors. The ABM approach also allows multiple dynamic mechanisms to be layered within the same model—for example, social influence via concurrent processes of homophily and contagion.

The ABM approach has been widely used within public health for the study of infectious 74 - 76although its application to obesity and Medical weight loss center new london ct disease is relatively recent In social science, ABM has been used extensively to study social norms—including models of social sanctioning 7778segregation 7980cooperation 8182culture 83agriculture 69, ethnocentrism 84retirement 85corruption 86and civil violence Several recent studies have applied ABM to the specific topic of social influence in obesity, helping to identify potential mechanisms through which social influence may affect Medical weight loss center new london ct of body weight.

Zhang and colleagues use ABM to study the interaction of homophily and social imitation as dual influences on individual BMI and behaviors such as physical activity and screen time under review. Medical weight loss center new london ct et al explore the implications of similar mechanisms for effective targeting and application of weight management interventions Chen and colleagues under review apply this mechanism to an empirical data set of youth, while Hammond and Ornstein under review extend it to include more empirically-grounded assumptions and accurate physiology before applying to a different dataset.

Opportunities for further application of the technique to gain insight into mechanisms and dynamics of social influence in obesity are substantial and promising, but must overcome potential challenges such as the relative scarcity of longitudinal data revealing dynamic patterns and the limited toolsets and training currently available in the technique. System dynamic SD models typically divide the population into different groups based on their adoption of a practice, a physical feature e.

BMIor other relevant characteristics.

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